Monday, April 11, 2011


English language comprehension

Chinese goods right now make up less than 3% of India’s imports and if the figures are right they are growing at no more than 25% a year. So, why is everyone making such a hue and cry over the Chinese threat? Aren’t Indian industrialists merely trying to get more tariff protection by stoking xenophobia? Probably some are. But that should not divert attention from the main point: China has finally shown up on India’s economy radar screen and it needs to be watched.
The figures my not yet reflect it, but anecdotal evidence points to the fact that China is weighing heavily on the minds of the manufacturing industry. Even if you discount all the praying and petitioning for protection there is enough indication that increasing number of businessmen are today looking at setting up operations in China. In other words they are putting their money where their mouth is: If you are in manufacturing, it makes far more sense to operate out of China than out of India.
According to newspaper reports, Ajanta, the world largest clock maker is shifting it’s manufacturing base lock, stock and barrel from Gujarat’s Saurashtra region to Shenzhen in China. Many other Indian companies, from Bajaj Electricals to Blowplast are looking at options that range from setting Lip their own operations in China to starting joint ventures to outsourcing. What we have seen so far could be just the tip of a bigger trend: there are a lot more Indian companies centered on three fourth of China’s exports. Only one-fourth of its exports consist of goods made by Chinese owned companies and that store is shrinking according to the Wall Street Journal.
In other words, China’s amazing export performance is due to its ability to sell itself as the perfect base for global manufacturing. This puts the issue in a larger context. This is the largest issue that should engage the attention of policy makers, more than the flood of imported goods from China.
It is almost as if focusing on exports means letting down the country just as rupee depreciation in some quarters is taken a mean rational emasculation. Focusing on exports will mean a lot of things. Policy makers only need to talk to Indian firms which are checking out China to get a laundry list of needs. There is of course, another way of looking at all this. China’s competitive advantages lie in its manufacturing powers; India’s advantages lie in services powered by its highly skilled English speaking manpower. It is only natural, therefore, that even as India is on the way to becoming the global back office for the world, China is becoming the global manufacturing base. We believe that this line of thinking is misleading. The only thing that prevents India from becoming a global manufacturing base is the lack of a government that functions the way it should. Meanwhile, here’s a piece of advice for Indian businessmen. Please do whatever it takes to keep your business alive — whether it means investing in Shenzhen or outsourcing from Timbuktoo— but do think global. While the government gets its act together, the country’s search for new business models that skirt around existing bottlenecks has to continue. Snehdeep Agarwal’s Bhartiya International, India’s top leather garments exporter with a turnover of Rs. 200 crore, has been notching Up 30% growth year after year by outsourcing its requirements from factories all around the world including China. Maybe that’s one way to go.
1. The major theme of the passage can be considered as
1. India’s business relations with China.
2. A comparison of India’s and China’s exports.
3. The existing anxiety regarding India’s manufacturing performances.
4. India’s hopes for manufacturing opportunities in China.
Ans. (3)
2. Which one of the following can be accepted as the title for the passage?
1. China’s AmazingISuccessfu1 Export Performances
2 Competition between India and China to Investments
3 A Piece of Advice for Indian 1sinesmen
4 The Chinese threat Indian Industrialists
Ans. (4)
3. Which Of the following is not correct according to the author?
1. Indian industrialists concentrate more on exports and less on domestic markets.
2. Many Indian companies are not trying to set up their operations in China.
3. Chinese-owned companies made one-fourth of the goods exported.
4. Indian companies do not want to take the risk of setting up in China and exporting to other countries.
Ans. (4)
4. The author seems to believe that fast growth of industries depends on which on of the following factors?
1. Liberalisation
2. Effective demand of the manufactured goods in the country and in foreign markets
3. The domestic market
4. The record-breaking exports
Ans. (2)
There is a long list of horror stories connected with the consumption of sugar— hyperactivity in children, criminal behavior in adults, diabetes, and elevated cholesterol. There is little good scientific evidence that sugar causes these conditions, but under certain circumstances it is thought to aggravate them. While the relationship between diet and health is far from an exact science, the relationship between diet and behavior is even less clear. There is a reasonable amount of evidence that what we eat does regulate one’s brain chemistry,” said Bambi Young, associate visiting professor in the Department of Epidemiology at the UCLA, ‘and it is more pronounced in certain individuals’ said under certain circumstances. The effects of food on behaviour are subtle, but they do exist. There are some people, particularly young children, who are, super respondents.” Sugar, perhaps because it provides nothing but calories and pleasure, is high in the list of culprits. Sugar is a carbohydrate like pasta and grain.
It is a simple carbohydrate; pasta and grain are complex ones but they are worlds apart. All carbohydrates are made up of one or more simple sugars under which sugar appears are glucose (blood sugar, fructose (fruit sugar), sucrose (table or remained sugar) lactose (milk sugar), and maltose (malt, sugar) sugar is used for energy. Brain cells need it, to function some other the glucose we take in, whether in the form simple or complex carbohydrates is stored to be used as needed. The excess is converted to fat. Sugar, that includes all forms of honey, corn syrup, high-fructose corn syrup, maple syrup and molasses — is the number one additive in foods. It turns up in the least expected places, like mayonnaise and ketchup. Researchers generally agree that an inborn desire for sweetness begins at birth. One school of thought theorises that sugar is addictive and provides a ‘high’ similar to, though much lesser than, drugs. “No one knows whether one becomes addicted to the pleasure or whether sugar has an effect in the brain level,” said a professor of psychiatry. “But behaviorally there are children who become very dependent on sugar.” However for some people who are anxious and tense, sugar has a positive effect because It promotes a feeling of well-being and of alertness. Though there is a general agreement about this in the scientific community, others disagree. According to them, there can be the opposite effect “It depends on the persons and on the situations,” said Mr. Conners of Duck University. “There are huge individual differences. Though sugar does not cause hyperactivity, uncontrollable behaviour in children, it exacerbates it.” One typical scenario is the child, who eats candy, cookies and cakes at a birthday party. “People are always telling me about their children who came home from a birthday party hanging from a chandelier,” said Bonnie Kaplan, an associate professor of pediatrics and psychology. “Parents blame’ it n sugar, but birthday parties are very exciting things for children and in addition there are other things besides sugar in the food.” Mr. Conners agreed that “Stimulus is important,” but he added, “it is hard to pin down until you realise it depends on the content of the rest of the meal”
5 Children’s way of life renders them open to
1. Heavy use of sugar.
2. Hyperactivity after eating sweets
3. Eating lots of candies, cookies and cakes.
4. Careful selection of food items served at a birthday party
Ans. (3)
6. There is good medical evidence that will worsen their condition if they don ‘t regulate sugar consumption
1. Adult criminals
2. Diabetic patients
3. Young sweet-eating children
4. Those who have cholesterol
Ans. (3)
7. We can have more confidence made by in the statement
1. Psychiatrists
2. Epidemiologists
3. University professors
4. Researchers in the field
Ans. (3)
8. According to the facts enumerated in the passage, the common man
1. Can use sugar without any apprehension in as much quantities, as he prefers.
2. Can give his healthy child as many chocolates and sweet meats and need not have any fear about the intake of sugar and other carbohydrates.
3. Should be wise enou4h to use his discretion to regulate his and his family’s intake of sugar, pasta and grin.
4. Should be wise enough to use his discretion to regulate his and his family’s intake of pasta and grain.
Ans. (3)
An expert group has sounded a timely warning on what environmentally destructive tourism’ will mean to national parks and wildlife sanctuaries and the objectives they are supposed to serve. Given the unique and rare wildlife the country has been endowed with the rationale for using the resources for attracting tourists from abroad is unassailable. This necessarily postulates that the flora and the fauna should be protected and conserved. As a matter of fact, much of the government’s interest in wildlife preservation has to do with the tremendous prospect of tourist traffic on that account. Yet the risk of the revenue-earning motivation overrunning the conservation imperatives is very real, the lure of the coveted foreign exchange that goes with this business only serving to enhancing it several folds. Even with the tourist inflow far below the potential, the pressure of visitors is said to have been already felt on the tiger reserves. With the Government of India’s declared intent to boost tourism quite justified for its own reasons, the need for eliminating the risk assumes a greater sense of urgency. The study team has noted that most of the 41 national parks and 165 wildlife sanctuaries surveyed are open to tourists. The less frequented among them may not require special attention immediately in this respect as much as the ones that are major tourists attraction do. These include the Sanjay Gandhi National Park in Maharashtra, Nandankanan in Orissa, and Bannerghatta in Karnataka. Over a year ago, the Indian Board for Wildlife expressed concern over the looming danger, and decided that the core areas of national parks and sanctuaries should be kept totally free from biotic disturbances, and the visitors be permitted to view the wildlife only from areas marked out for the purpose. And now, the expert group has come up with the suggestion that a case by case evaluation be done of the ‘capacity’ as well as the ‘limitations’ of all the national parks and wildlife sanctuaries and based on such assessment an area-specific plan for tourist promotion within the safety norms be charted. That this is the most scientific way of going about the job, and that there is no time to lose can be readily conceded.
9. Biotic disturbances in the context means
1. Attacks from other living things, animals etc.
2. The disturbances caused by the natives on seeing the strange foreigners.
3. The political disturbances causing the closedown of the parks.
4. Disturbances caused by the wild animals on seeing the tourists.
Ans. (1)
10. By using the expression, “environmentally destructive tourism”, the author means
1. The preservation of the wild beasts.
2. Destruction of the wildlife and sanctuaries.
3 Destroying the attractive sources of wild animals and birds
4. The maintenance of the flora and fauna of the country.
Ans. (2)
11. To implement the most scientific ways of tourism we should
1. Get industries and talented persons trained in the field.
2. Form a commission and plan out how to implement the suggestions.
3. Send a group of scientists abroad to learn more about tourism.
4. Spend as much finance as possible to better the suggestions made.
Ans. (2)
We tend to be harsh on our bureaucracy, but nowhere do citizens enjoy dealing with their government. They do it because they have to. But that doesn’t mean that the experience has to be dismal. Now there is a new wind blowing through government departments around the world, which could take some of this pain away. In the next five years it may well transform not only the way public services are delivered but also the fundamental relationship between governments and citizens. Not surprisingly, it is the internet that is behind it. After ecommerce and e-business, the next revolution may be e-governance. Examples abound. The municipality of Phoenix, Arizona, allows its citizens to renew their car registrations, pay traffic fines, and replace lost identity cards etc. online without having to stand in endless queues in a grubby municipal office. The municipality is happy because it saves $5 a transaction — it costs only $1 x 60 to process an online transaction versus $ 6 x 60 to do it across the counter. in Chile, people routinely submit their income tax returns over the Internet, which has reduced the time taken and the member of errors and litigation with the tax department Both tax-payers and the revenue department are happier. The furthest ahead, not surprisingly, is the small, rich and entrepreneurial civil service of Singapore, which allows citizens to do more functions online than any other. As in many private companies, the purchasing and buying of Singapore’s government department is now n the Web, and cost benefits come through more competitive bidding, easy access to global suppliers and time saved by online processing of orders. They can post their catalogues on their site, bid for contracts,- submit invoices and check their payment status over the Net. The most useful idea for Indian municipalities is Govt. Works, a private sector- run site that collects local taxes, fines and utility bills for 3,600 municipalities across the United States. it is a citizen’s site, which also provides information on government jobs, tenders, etc. The most ambitious is the British government, which has targeted to convert 100 percent-of its transactions with its citizens to the Internet by 2005. Cynics in India will say, ‘Oh, e-government will never work in India. We are so poor and we don’t have computers. But they are wrong! There are many experiments afoot in India as well. Citizens in Andhra Pradesh can download government forms and submit applications on the Net without having to bribe clerks. In many districts, land records are online and this has created transparency. Similarly, in Dhar district of Madhya Pradesh, villagers have begun to file applications for land transfers and follow their progress on the Net. In seventy villages in the Kolhapur and Sangli districts in Maharashtra, Internet booths have come up where farmers can daily check the market rates of agricultural commodities in Marathi, along with data on agricultural schemes, information on crop technology, when to spray and plant their crops and bus and railway timetables. They also find vocational guidance on jobs, applications for ration cards, kerosene/gas burners and land record extracts with details of land ownership. Sam Pitroda’s World Tel, Reliance Industries and the Tamil Nadu government are jointly laying 3,000 km of optic fiber cables to create a Tamil Network which will offer ration cards, schools, college and hospital admission forms, Land records, and pension records. If successful, WorldTel will expand the network to Gujarat, Karnataka and West Bengal. In Kerala, all the villages are getting linked online to the district headquarters, allowing citizens to compare the development priorities of their village with other villages in the state. Many are still sceptical of the real impact because so few Indians have computers. The answer lies in interactive c-able TV and in Internet kiosks. Although India has only-five million computers and thirty- eight million telephones, it has thirty-four million homes with cable TV and these are growing at eight percent a year. By 2005 most cable homes will have access to the Internet from many of the 700,000 local STD/PCO booths. Internet usage may be low today, but it is bound to grow rapidly in the future, and e-governance in India may not be a dream.
12. How can India overcome low penetration of computers for e-governance?
1. By manufacturing more computers
2. Through cable TV and Internet kiosks
3. By opening more STD/PCO booths
4. By making the Internet free
Ans. (2)
13. Which of the following has not been one of the effects of submitting income tax returns over Internet in Chile?
1. Reduction of legal cases
2. Reduction in errors
3. Increase in transparency
4. Increase in number of returns
Ans. (4)
14. In which direction is the new wind blowing?
1. More and more-interaction of citizens with government through Internet.
2. Outsourcing the work of infrastructure creation for Internet.
3. Increasing the penetration of computers in rural areas.
4. Integrating e-commerce, e-business and e-governance.
Ans. (4)
15. According to the author, e-governance in India
1. Is a dream and may not succeed.
2. Will not succeed unless more computers are owned by citizens.
3. Has had successful attempts and plans.
4. Will not work because the model is suited for developed countries.
Ans. (3)

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